Carver, C. S. (2006). Approach, avoidance, and the self-regulation of affect and action. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 105-110. 

Several literatures converge on the idea that approach and avoidance/withdrawal behaviors are managed by two partially distinct self-regulatory system. The functions of these systems also appear to be embodied in discrepancy-reducing and -enlarging feedback loops, respectively. This article describes how the feedback construct has been used to address these two classes of action and the affective experiences that relate to them. Further discussion centers on the development of measures of individual differences in approach and avoidance tendencies, and how these measures can be (and have been) used as research tools, to investigative whether other phenomena have their roots in approach or avoidance.

To obtain a reprint of this article, click here.

Carver Home

Carver Publications
University of Miami College of Arts and Sciences Department of Psychology