Carver, C. S. (2004). Negative affects deriving from the behavioral approach system. Emotion, 4, 3-22.

Does the behavioral approach system (BAS) relate to the experience of any negative affects, or are all negative affects tied to the behavioral inhibition system (BIS)? In Study 1, self-reported Fun Seeking predicted reports of greater frustration and sadness after frustrative non-reward. In Study 2, self-reported Reward Responsiveness predicted reports of greater anger in response to scenarios. In Study 3, self-reported Drive predicted reports of greater anger after the terrorist attacks of September 2001. In no case did BIS sensitivity contribute uniquely to these affects, though BIS predicted nervousness in Study 2 and fear in Study 3. Discussion focuses on the role of frustration and anger in effortful pursuit of goals and depressed affect in disengagement from goals.
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